Environmental Impact Assessments


Some projects are required by law to first evaluate the project to determine its impact on the environment and human health, and thereafter set out the required environmental monitoring and management procedures and plans in a concise Environmental Impact Assessment. This document should:


  • determine the potential and known effects of proposed projects on the cultural, social, economic, and ecological health of an area and put in place measures to avoid negative impacts while enhancing the positive ones;
  • ensure that adequate environmental information is available to decision makers;
  • identify cultural, social, economic, and ecological monitoring and management requirements during construction, operation, and decommissioning;
  • improve public participation in government decision by involving the public at all stages of the EIA


If your project falls within the scope of projects listed below, Contact Us today and our dedicated team will not only prepare the EIA but also handle the entire process on your behalf and help you secure this essential certificate within the shortest timescales possible. This is carried out in the following steps:


Development and Submission of Project Prospectus


The first step involves the preparation of a prospectus or short report that informs EMA of your proposed business activity detailing its location, size, area sensitivity, and project implementation strategy, among others issues.


Guidance and Requirements

In response, EMA will thereafter:


  • provide a breakdown of key issues that are likely to be important during the detailed EIA phase and eliminates those that are not;
  • identify interested and affected parties, government departments and proponents whom we should consult and involve in the preparation of the EIA;
  • Highlight the main environmental issues which must be addressed in an EIA study.

Environmental Management Plan (EMP)

Thereafter, you will be required to identify and critically assess the project's likely environmental impacts before developing an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) therefrom. This part of the EIA summarizes the abovementioned impacts, highlights how the project will mitigate these in compliance with industry standards, identifies the resources and personnel allocated thereto, and proposes an action plan for implementation. It also provides for a contingency plan for when impacts are greater than anticipated and outlines a programme for monitoring and evaluation.


EIA Review & Monitoring

The document will thereafter be appraised by a review team from EMA to assess the adequacy and quality of the EIA report against the anticipated project impacts, mitigation measures, and comments from interested and affected parties. All in all, the process can take up to 3 months following which you will be issued with your EIA certificate. Thereafter, you are required to implement and follow the EMP guidelines during project implementation as EMA will monitor and audit your adherence to the same.


Projects requiring EIAs

As defined by the Environmental Management Act, the following projects require that an Environment Impact Assessment be prepared and approved by the Environmental Management Authority.


  1. Dams and man-made lakes.
  2. Drainage and irrigation—
    1. drainage of wetland or wild life habitat;
    2. irrigation schemes.
  3. Forestry—
    1. conversion of forest land to other use;
    2. conversion of natural woodland to other use within the catchment area of reservoirs used for water supply, irrigation or hydropower generation or in areas adjacent to the Parks and Wild Life Estate.
  4. Housing developments
  5. Industry—
    1. chemical plants;
    2. iron and steel smelters and plants;
    3. smelters other than iron and steel;
    4. petrochemical plants;
    5. cement plants;
    6. lime plants;
    7. agro-industries;
    8. pulp and paper mills;
    9. tanneries;
    10. breweries;
    11. industries involving the use, manufacture, handling, storage, transport or disposal of hazardous or toxic materials.
  6. Infrastructure—
    1. highways;
    2. airports and airport facilities;
    3. new railway routes and branch lines;
    4. new towns or townships;
    5. industrial sites for medium and heavy industries.
  7. Mining and quarrying—
    1. mineral prospecting;
    2. mineral mining;
    3. ore processing and concentrating;
    4. quarrying.
  8. Petroleum production, storage and distribution—
    1. oil and gas exploration and development;
    2. pipelines;
    3. oil and gas separation, processing, handling and storage facilities;
    4. oil refineries.
  9. Power generation and transmission—
    1. thermal power stations;
    2. hydropower schemes;
    3. high-voltage transmission lines.
  10. Tourist, resorts and recreational developments—
    1. resort facilities and hotels;
    2. marinas;
    3. safari operations.
  11. Waste treatment and disposal—
    1. toxic and hazardous waste: incineration plants, recovery plants (off-site), wastewater treatment plants (off-site), landfill facilities, storage facilities (off-site);
    2. municipal solid waste: incineration, composting and recovery/recycling plants, landfill facilities;
    3. municipal sewage: waste treatment plants, outfalls into aquatic systems, effluent water irrigation schemes.
  12. Water supply—
    1. groundwater development for industrial, agricultural or urban water supply;
    2. major canals;
    3. cross-drainage water transfers;
    4. major pipelines;
    5. water withdrawals from rivers or reservoirs.